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Why XHTML™?

Or, Why not HTML?

The Document Type Definition (DTD) or, DOCTYPE, should be the first thing considered when construction begins. Which DTD should be used.

HTML? Or, XHTML?

Numerous texts have been offered. “The perils of using XHTML properly | 456 Berea Street” published January 18, 2005 by Roger Johansson, “HTML or XHTML?” published November 2, 2005 by Robert Nyman, “XHTML advocates considered erroneous” published November 18, 2005 by Anne van Kesteren and, “The Road to XHTML 2.0: MIME Types” which was published March 19, 2003 by Mark Pilgrim.

Lastly, “Differences with HTML 4” or, when using XML, ongoing • Drop the <!DOCTYPE>” published December 19, 2005 by Tim Bray.

It’s a conundrum, isn’t it.

Therefore, in the spirit of Flying Monkeys from Borneo, the following was composed for those who want to follow those with Knowledge. You’ve read code. You’ve followed examples set by “The Old Professionals”. Still. There are some aspects of fundamental web development that are unfathomable when starting-up.

The following were selected from collected sites which meet web standards. I haven’t included all of the sites noted or referenced on The Elementary Group Standards for various reasons, e.g., non-standards compliance.

And, in no particular random order.

[S]

  • 1 456 Berea Street | Articles and news on web standards, accessibility, and usability
  • <!DOCTYPE HTML PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD HTML 4.01//EN" "http://www.w3.org/TR/html4/strict.dtd">
  • <html lang="en">
  • <meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=iso-8859-1" />
  • <meta name="description" content="A website focused on web standards, accessibility, usability and other things related to web development and web design.">
  • 2 And all that Malarkey
  • <!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD XHTML 1.0 Transitional//EN" "http://www.w3.org/TR/xhtml1/DTD/xhtml1-transitional.dtd">
  • <html xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xml:lang="en" lang="en">
  • <meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=iso-8859-1" />
  • <meta name="description" content="Malarkey is Andy Clarke, a UK based designer with a passion for design, CSS and accessibility. This is his personal site, And All That Malarkey." />
  • 3 Tantek's Thoughts
  • <!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD XHTML 1.0 Strict//EN" "http://www.w3.org/TR/xhtml1/DTD/xhtml1-strict.dtd">
  • <html xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xml:lang="en-us" lang="en-us">
  • <meta http-equiv="content-type" content="text/html; charset=utf-8" />
  • <meta name="description" content="NONE"/>
  • 4 Jeffrey Zeldman Presents The Daily Report
  • <!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD XHTML 1.0 Transitional//EN" "http://www.w3.org/TR/xhtml1/DTD/xhtml1-transitional.dtd">
  • <html xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml">
  • <meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=ISO-8859-1" />
  • <meta name="description" content="CSS, XHTML, front end design. Jeffrey Zeldman Presents The Daily Report: web design news and information since 1995." />
  • 5 A List Apart: A List Apart
  • <!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD XHTML 1.0 Transitional//EN" "http://www.w3.org/TR/xhtml1/DTD/xhtml1-transitional.dtd">
  • <html xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml">
  • <meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html;charset=utf-8" />
  • <meta name="description" content="A microformat for book printing and a call to simplicity in web design and development" />
  • [Note: A List Apart’s description describes the articles on it’s index page which happens to be it’s home page.]
  • 6 mezzoblue  §  design, typography, and the web: live from vancouver, b.c., canada
  • <!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD XHTML 1.0 Strict//EN" "http://www.w3.org/TR/xhtml1/DTD/xhtml1-strict.dtd">
  • <html xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xml:lang="en" id="www-mezzoblue-com">
  • <meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=utf-8" />
  • <meta name="description" content="mezzoblue: the daily weblog of dave shea, a web designer in vancouver, b.c., canada." />
  • 7 meyerweb.com
  • <!DOCTYPE HTML PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD HTML 4.01 Transitional//EN" "http://www.w3.org/TR/html4/loose.dtd">
  • <meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=utf-8">
  • <meta name="description" content="NONE" />
  • 8 Anne’s Weblog about Markup & Style
  • <!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD HTML 4.01//EN">
  • <!-- It’s valid, sure. --> [Note: Mr. van Kesteren's quote.]
  • <meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="NONE" />
  • <meta name="description" content="NONE" />
  • [Note: No <head>, no <html> and no <body>.]
  • 9 stu nicholls | CSS PLaY | experiments with cascading style sheets
  • <!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD XHTML 1.1//EN" "http://www.w3.org/TR/xhtml11/DTD/xhtml11.dtd">
  • <html xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xml:lang="en">
  • <meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="application/xhtml+xml; charset=UTF-8" />
  • <meta name="Description" content="CSS ~ Cutting edge Cascading Style Sheets. Experiments in CSS" />
  • 10 satzansatz
  • <!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD XHTML 1.0 Strict//EN" "http://www.w3.org/TR/xhtml1/DTD/xhtml1-strict.dtd">
  • <html xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xml:lang="en" lang="en">
  • <meta http-equiv="content-type" content="text/html; charset=utf-8" />
  • <meta name="Description" content="NONE" />
  • 11 /* Position Is Everything */ — Modern browser bugs explained in detail!
  • <!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD XHTML 1.0 Strict//EN" "http://www.w3.org/TR/xhtml1/DTD/xhtml1-strict.dtd">
  • <html xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xml:lang="en" lang="en">
  • <meta http-equiv="content-Type" content="text/html; charset=iso-8859-1" />
  • <meta name="description" content="Advanced CSS demos and bug reports" />
  • 12 molly.com
  • <!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD XHTML 1.0 Transitional//EN" "http://www.w3.org/TR/xhtml1/DTD/xhtml1-transitional.dtd">
  • <html xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" lang="en">
  • <meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=utf-8" />
  • <meta name="description" content="NONE"/>
  • 13 SimpleBits
  • <!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD XHTML 1.0 Transitional//EN" "http://www.w3.org/TR/xhtml1/DTD/xhtml1-transitional.dtd">
  • <html xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" lang="en" xml:lang="en">
  • <meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=utf-8" />
  • <meta name="description" content="Hand-crafted web sites, pixels and text by Dan Cederholm." />
  • 14 css Zen Garden: The Beauty in CSS Design
  • <!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD XHTML 1.0 Strict//EN" "http://www.w3.org/TR/xhtml1/DTD/xhtml1-strict.dtd">
  • <html xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xml:lang="en">
  • <meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=iso-8859-1" />
  • <meta name="description" content="A demonstration of what can be accomplished visually through CSS-based design." />
  • 15 Design Meme
  • <!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD XHTML 1.0 Transitional//EN" "http://www.w3.org/TR/xhtml1/DTD/xhtml1-transitional.dtd">
  • <html xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml">
  • <meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=UTF-8" />
  • <meta name="description" content="NONE" />
  • 16 ShaunInman.com
  • <!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD XHTML 1.0 Transitional//EN" "http://www.w3.org/TR/xhtml1/DTD/xhtml1-transitional.dtd">
  • <html xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xml:lang="en" lang="en">
  • <meta http-equiv="content-type" content="text/html; charset=iso-8859-1" />
  • <meta name="description" content="NONE" />
  • 17 Stopdesign
  • <!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD XHTML 1.0 Strict//EN" "http://www.w3.org/TR/xhtml1/DTD/xhtml1-strict.dtd">
  • <html xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xml:lang="en" lang="en">
  • <meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=utf-8" />
  • <meta name="description" content="A design consultancy led by Founder and Principal, Douglas Bowman, based in San Francisco, California, Stopdesign specializes in a simple, beautiful aesthetic, balance of form and function, and highly flexible design." />
  • 18 Airbag Industries
  • <?xml version="1.0" encoding="iso-8859-1"?><!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD XHTML 1.0 Transitional//EN" "http://www.w3.org/TR/xhtml1/DTD/xhtml1-transitional.dtd">
  • <html xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml">
  • <meta http-equiv="content-type" content="text/html; charset=utf-8" />
  • <meta name="description" content="Airbag Industries, LLC is a consultancy that aids businesses with their Internet related concerns." />
  • 19 Adactio: Journal
  • <!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD XHTML 1.1//EN" "http://www.w3.org/TR/xhtml11/DTD/xhtml11.dtd">
  • <html xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xml:lang="en">
  • <meta http-equiv="Content-type" content="text/html; charset=utf-8" />
  • <meta name="description" content="Adactio is the website of Jeremy Keith, a web developer living in Brighton in southern England." />
  • 20 {Non Troppo}-{not, um, exactly | a personal weblog}
  • <!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD XHTML 1.0 Strict//EN" "http://www.w3.org/TR/xhtml1/DTD/xhtml1-strict.dtd">
  • <html xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xml:lang="en">
  • <meta http-equiv="Content-type" content="text/html; charset=utf-8" />
  • <meta name="description" content="NonTroppo - not, um, exactly | a personal weblog by Ian Andolina" />
  • 21 Stylegala - Web Design Publication
  • <!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD XHTML 1.0 Strict//EN" "http://www.w3.org/TR/xhtml1/DTD/xhtml1-strict.dtd">
  • <html xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" lang="en" xml:lang="en">
  • <meta http-equiv="Content-type" content="text/html; charset=ISO-8859-1" />
  • <meta name="description" content="NONE" />
  • 22 Andy Budd::Blogography
  • <!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD XHTML 1.0 Transitional//EN" "http://www.w3.org/TR/xhtml1/DTD/xhtml1-transitional.dtd">
  • <html xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml">
  • <meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=utf-8" />
  • <meta name="description" content="NONE" />
  • 23 westciv :: home
  • <!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD XHTML 1.0 Strict//EN" "http://www.w3.org/TR/xhtml1/DTD/xhtml1-strict.dtd">
  • <html xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xml:lang="en">
  • <meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=iso-8859-1" />
  • <meta name="description" content="Web standards resources - tutorials, software and courses for CSS, HTML/XHTML and accessibility" />
  • 24 Robert’s talk
  • <!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD HTML 4.01//EN" "http://www.w3.org/TR/html4/DTD/strict.dtd">
  • <meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=UTF-8">
  • <meta name="Description" content="Here you will find posts about news, trends and developing for internet, mainly focusing on browsers and web user interfaces.">
  • 25 [Previous] Veerle's blog
  • <!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD XHTML 1.0 Transitional//EN" "http://www.w3.org/TR/xhtml1/DTD/xhtml1-transitional.dtd">
  • <html xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml">
  • <meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=iso-8859-1" />
  • <meta name="description" content="NONE" />
  • 25 [Present] Veerle's blog 2.0 - Webdesign - XHTML CSS | Graphic Design
  • <!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD XHTML 1.0 Strict//EN" "http://www.w3.org/TR/xhtml1/DTD/xhtml1-strict.dtd">
  • <html xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xml:lang="en" lang="en">
  • <meta http-equiv="content-type" content="text/html; charset=utf-8" />
  • <meta name="description" content="Veerle's blog 2.0. Webdesign talk - XHTML CSS , Graphic Design tutorials." />
  • 26 as days pass by
  • <!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD XHTML 1.0 Transitional//EN" "http://www.w3.org/TR/xhtml1/DTD/xhtml1-transitional.dtd">
  • <html xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml">
  • <meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=UTF-8" />
  • <meta name="description" content="NONE" />
  • 27box of chocolates
  • <!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD XHTML 1.0 Transitional//EN" "http://www.w3.org/TR/xhtml1/DTD/xhtml1-transitional.dtd">
  • <html xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml">
  • <meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=utf-8" />
  • <meta name="description" content="NONE" />
  • 28 Subtraction 7.0
  • <!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD XHTML 1.0 Strict//EN" "http://www.w3.org/TR/xhtml1/DTD/xhtml1-strict.dtd">
  • <meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=utf-8" />
  • <meta name="description" content="NONE" />
  • 29 Simon Willison's Weblog
  • <!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD XHTML 1.0 Strict//EN" "http://www.w3.org/TR/xhtml1/DTD/xhtml1-strict.dtd">
  • <html xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" lang="en" xml:lang="en">
  • <meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=utf-8" />
  • <meta name="description" content="NONE" />
  • 30 arkitrave :: architecture, web design, and stuff » General
  • <!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD XHTML 1.0 Transitional//EN" "http://www.w3.org/TR/xhtml1/DTD/xhtml1-transitional.dtd">
  • <meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=utf-8" />
  • <meta name="description" content="NONE" />
  • 31 [Previous] The Web Standards Project
  • <!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD XHTML 1.0 Strict//EN" "http://www.w3.org/TR/xhtml1/DTD/xhtml1-strict.dtd">
  • <html xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml">
  • <meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="NONE" />
  • <meta name="description" content="NONE" />
  • 31 [Present] The Web Standards Project
  • <!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD XHTML 1.0 Strict//EN" "http://www.w3.org/TR/xhtml1/DTD/xhtml1-strict.dtd">
  • <html xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xml:lang="en" lang="en">
  • <meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=UTF-8" />
  • <meta name="description" content="The Web Standards Project is a grassroots coalition fighting for standards which ensure simple, affordable access to web technologies for all." />
  • 32 Accessify.com - all the tools, links and resources you'll ever need to make your web site accessible.
  • <!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD XHTML 1.0 Transitional//EN" "http://www.w3.org/TR/xhtml1/DTD/xhtml1-transitional.dtd">
  • <html lang="en" xml:lang="en">
  • <meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=utf-8" />
  • <meta name="description" content="NONE" />
  • 33 Juicy Studio: No artificial additives
  • <!DOCTYPE HTML PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD HTML 4.01//EN" "http://www.w3.org/TR/html4/strict.dtd">
  • <html lang="en-gb">
  • <meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=utf-8">
  • <meta name="description" content="NONE" />
  • 34 Web Standards with Imagination: Dustin Diaz
  • <!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD XHTML 1.0 Strict//EN" "http://www.w3.org/TR/xhtml1/DTD/xhtml1-strict.dtd">
  • <html xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" lang="en" xml:lang="en:us">
  • <meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=UTF-8" />
  • <meta name="description" content="NONE" />
  • 35 Boxes & Arrows
  • <!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD XHTML 1.0 Strict//EN" "http://www.w3.org/TR/xhtml1/DTD/xhtml1-strict.dtd">
  • <html xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xml:lang="en" lang="en">
  • <meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=utf-8;" />
  • <meta name="description" content="NONE" />
  • 36 W3C QA - The QA Toolbox
  • <?xml version="1.0" encoding="iso-8859-1"?>
  • <!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD XHTML 1.0 Strict//EN" "http://www.w3.org/TR/xhtml1/DTD/xhtml1-strict.dtd">
  • <html xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xml:lang="en" lang="en">
  • <meta http-equiv="content-type" content="text/html; charset=iso-8859-1" />
  • <meta name="Description" content="W3C QA - repository of QA tools and validation software at W3C" />
  • 37 Blue Flavored - The Official Blog of Blue Flavor Experience Design
  • <?xml version="1.0" encoding="iso-8859-1"?>
  • <DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD XHTML 1.0 Transitional//EN" "http://www.w3.org/TR/xhtml1/DTD/xhtml1-transitional.dtd">
  • <meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=utf-8" />
  • <meta name="description" content="NONE" />
  • 38 Asterisk | D. Keith Robinson’s Web Design Blog.
  • <!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD XHTML 1.0 Transitional//EN" "http://www.w3.org/TR/xhtml1/DTD/xhtml1-transitional.dtd">
  • <html xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xml:lang="en" lang="en">
  • <meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=utf-8" />
  • <meta name="description" content="Asterisk* - A Web Design Blog by D. Keith Robinson" />
  • 39 Left Justified
  • <!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD XHTML 1.0 Strict//EN" "http://www.w3.org/TR/xhtml1/DTD/xhtml1-strict.dtd">
  • <html xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xml:lang="en">
  • <meta http-equiv="Content-Language" content="en-au" />
  • <meta name="description" content="NONE" />
  • 40 Clearleft Web Design and Accessibility Consultants
  • <!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD XHTML 1.1//EN" "http://www.w3.org/TR/xhtml11/DTD/xhtml11.dtd">
  • <html xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xml:lang="en">
  • <meta http-equiv="content-type" content="text/html; charset=utf-8" />
  • <meta name="description" content="NONE" />
  • 41 Contentious
  • <!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD XHTML 1.0 Transitional//EN" "http://www.w3.org/TR/xhtml1/DTD/xhtml1-transitional.dtd"<
  • <html xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml">
  • <meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=utf-8" />
  • <meta name="description" content="NONE" />
  • 42 QuirksMode
  • <!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD XHTML 1.0 Transitional//EN" "http://www.w3.org/TR/xhtml1/DTD/xhtml1-transitional.dtd">
  • <meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=utf-8"/>
  • <meta name="description" content="NONE" />
  • [Note: SHTML Version]
  • 42a QuirksMode - for all your browser quirks
  • <html lang="en">
  • [Note: W3C DOM Version]
  • 43 CollyLogic | Illogical Waffle
  • <!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD XHTML 1.0 Transitional//EN" "http://www.w3.org/TR/xhtml1/DTD/xhtml1-transitional.dtd">
  • <meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html;charset=iso-8859-1"/>
  • <meta name="description" content="CollyLogic. The ever-so engaging blog of Simon Collison, lead web developer at Agenzia, and founder of You Are Here Visual Arts, Nottingham UK" />
  • 44 The KuraFire Network
  • <!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD XHTML 1.0 Strict//EN" "http://www.w3.org/TR/xhtml1/DTD/xhtml1-strict.dtd">
  • <meta name="description" content="Growing into Website design with XHTML and CSS, explaining how to use CSS for powerful layouts" />
  • 45 GUUUI - The Interaction Designer's Coffee Break
  • <!DOCTYPE HTML PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD HTML 4.01 Transitional//EN">
  • <meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html;charset=iso-8859-1" />
  • <meta name="description" content="GUUUI - the interaction designer's coffee break, with daily postings and quarterly articles about interaction design" />
  • 46 Coudal Partners
  • <!DOCTYPE HTML PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD HTML 4.01 Transitional//EN">
  • <meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html;charset=iso-8859-1" />
  • <meta name="description" content="NONE" />
  • 47 Digital Web Magazine
  • <!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD XHTML 1.0 Transitional//EN" "http://www.w3.org/TR/xhtml1/DTD/xhtml1-transitional.dtd">
  • <html xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xml:lang="en">
  • <meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html;charset=iso-8859-1" />
  • <meta name="description" content="Digital Web Magazine" />
  • 48 Creative Commons
  • <!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD XHTML 1.0 Transitional//EN" "http://www.w3.org/TR/xhtml1/DTD/xhtml1-transitional.dtd">
  • <html xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xml:lang="en">
  • <meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html;charset=utf-8" />
  • <meta name="description" content="NONE" />
  • 49 Email Newsletter and List Management Software for Web Designers - Campaign Monitor
  • <!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD XHTML 1.0 Strict//EN" "http://www.w3.org/TR/xhtml1/DTD/xhtml1-strict.dtd">
  • <html xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" lang="en" xml:lang="en">
  • <meta name="description" content="Campaign Monitor - email newsletter and list management software built for web designers to send their campaigns, track the results and manage their subscribers." />
  • 50 The Guild of Accessible Web Designers
  • <!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD XHTML 1.0 Strict//EN" "http://www.w3.org/TR/xhtml1/DTD/xhtml1-strict.dtd">
  • <html xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xml:lang="en">
  • <meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html;charset=iso-8859-1" />
  • <meta name="Description" content="Welcome to the Guild of Accessible Web Designers" />

Or,

What DOCTYPE was used?

  • None = 1
  • HTML 4.01/Strict = 3
  • HTML 4.01/Transitional = 3
  • XHTML 1.0/Strict = 20
  • XHTML 1.0/Transitional = 19
  • XHTML 1.0/Transitional + XML 1.0 = 1
  • XHTML 1.1 = 3

Fifty sites. Fifty sites representing “Old Web Development Professionals”.

Very Unstandard standard, isn’t it.

It’s simple, really. Monkey whomsoever you'd like. Though, whichever’s chosen, we recommend using “Strict” for its benefit of rendering markup by browsers in a standards mode. [ws] DOCTYPE And Browser Modes illustrates this.

However, “ XHTML is not for Beginners ” published December 5, 2005 by Lachlan Hunt is what anyone learning Structural Markup Languages should follow.

And, if you should choose XHTML, XML schema validator by Christoph Schneegans is highly recommended.

Corrigenda

This site uses HTML 4.01/Strict utilizing the well-formedness requirements of “XHTML™ 1.0 The Extensible HyperText Markup Language (Second Edition): A Reformulation of HTML 4 in XML 1.0.” (excepting those XHTML-specific requirements found Appendix C, i.e., C.1, C.2 and C.3). This decision was based on three unassuming facts.

  • XHTML 1.0 is not forward compatible; XHTML 2.0 will not be backwards compatible.
  • Serving XHTML as application/xhtml+xml does’t work in IE.
  • HTML 5 purports backwards compatibility.

Sean Fraser posted this on March 30, 2006 01:26 PM.

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Comments

Comment Author Gravatar
Geoffrey Sneddon wrote this at June 19, 2006 03:40 AM

Uh… 1 + 3 + 3 + 20 +19 + 1 + 3 = 49, which is one less than the number of sites you looked at.


Comment Author Gravatar
Joe Dolson wrote this at June 19, 2006 03:54 AM

Try again, Geoffrey...

Interesting appraisal of the variety of standards adhered to - I was a bit surprised by the number of transitional doctypes.


Comment Author Gravatar
Sean Fraser wrote this at June 19, 2006 08:52 AM

Joe: Me, too. Especially, after all of the hoopla regarding "transitional" DTDs as useless.


Comment Author Gravatar
Geoffrey Sneddon wrote this at June 19, 2006 10:21 AM

I officially can't count. :)


Comment Author Gravatar
Emil Stenström wrote this at June 19, 2006 11:27 AM

I think many of the XHTML sites above exists because Wordpress as default sends that one. Wordpress need an option to change to HTML it's wasn't hard to rehack the source to enable it though.

HTML 4.01 Strict all the way baby! :)


Comment Author Gravatar
Sean Fraser wrote this at June 19, 2006 12:24 PM

Emil: True. Though, most of the sites authors would be Level Highest from that meme you began with Levels of CSS Knowledge, wouldn't they.


Simon Martin wrote this at June 20, 2006 05:44 AM

Ok, I've been very interested in this debate since stumbling across it a day ago and thought I'd try my hand at a true xhtml site.

So in the interests of experimentation I've added xml version="1.0" encoding="iso-8859-1" to the very top of my page ( http://www.seikadojo.co.uk ) and meta http-equiv="content-type" content="application/xhtml+xml; charset=iso-8859-1" I was hoping the site would fall apart horribly; especially in IE (fun learning) but it looks no different :( When validating it returns text/html


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Stuart Robertson wrote this at June 20, 2006 06:03 AM

I think many of the XHTML sites above exists because Wordpress as default sends that one.

My site runs on wordpress, but it's XHTML Transitional by choice -- although I'm going to spend some time thinking about whether I'm still happy with that choice...

Thanks for making me feel "Old". ;-)


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Sean Fraser wrote this at June 20, 2006 12:16 PM

Simon: Your comment is one that I can only adequately address and I haven't been able to find any definitive documentation. It's beyond my expertise. Your site may have broken if it had been parsed as XHTML 1.1. See This is Poodle Predictor's diagnostic view. [Poodle Predictor is a tool which simulates Google spiders; it's an excellent tool but that's for a different article.] Under "HEADER", you'll see two Content Types: "Content-Type: text/html" and "Content-Type: application/xhtml+xml; charset=iso-8859-1". The first one is server-side; the second one is client-side. Search engines and browsers are defaulting to the server-side.

Your Microsoft-IIS/6.0 server isn't configured for HTTP Request as XHTML 1.1. When I was compiling data from CSS Reboot Spring 2006, I found numerous server-side configurations over-riding client-side declarations. Your example included.

Maybe, someone who profoundly knows these things can address this.


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Sean Fraser wrote this at June 20, 2006 12:30 PM

Mr. Robertson: You are an Old Professional! :) The Search for the Missing Link "Originally published May 23rd, 2003" was the first CSS2 I monkeyed. And, your Custom Underline, was the first bit of reverse-engineering I performed around the same time months before your A List Apart article (though I set an animated gif as a background image).

I still prefer your "uoguelph.ca" design.


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Christian Montoya wrote this at June 20, 2006 02:12 PM

I'm not too crazy about the list of 50 here... I would have liked all 50 to really be sites by people who have some connection to standards and HTML/XML, not just say CSS or web design (you probably would have found more HTML 4.01 strict doctypes). Plus, stating the doctype used without mentioning the content-type header served is only looking at half of the story (maybe you actually think the meta "content-type" tag does something... I sure hope not); there's a big difference between using XHTML correctly and incorrectly.

For everyone who talks about Wordpress being difficult about serving HTML, you can read this post: Serve Your Weblog as HTML 4.01 Strict. It's really easy, all it requires is some PHP in the theme files (no need to hack the core). That post has been up for a while, I just wish more Wordpress users who want to use HTML would find it.


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Sean Fraser wrote this at June 20, 2006 03:58 PM

Christian: I have found and collected numerous HTML 4.01/Strict sites (including yours). Oddly, or, maybe not, I have found that more HTML 4.01/Strict site developers comment on 456 Berea Street than others. That's a different article. And, an article regarding Meta:Content-Type and Content-Type-Response-Header will appear here eventually.

I like your characters with umbrellas.


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Simon Willison wrote this at June 21, 2006 09:13 AM

I'm down on the list as using XHTML 1.0 Strict, but actually I've been recommending HTML 4.01 Strict for the past few years. My blog is still awaiting redevelopment.

My personal experience with XHTML is that it requires a surprising amount of extra work for no actual added benefit.


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Montoya wrote this at June 25, 2006 06:58 AM

Sean: We retro HTML supporters have a fondness for Roger Johansson, yes.

Simon: "My personal experience with XHTML is that it requires a surprising amount of extra work for no actual added benefit." Words of the wise, my friend :)


Brent wrote this at July 9, 2006 01:25 PM

yeoup, the security and open source folks mostly use products they claim to be unsecure. Just take a peek over their shoulders at the next security or open source conference.

I asked one "well-known" open source guy and he said something about the tools being a personal "non-negotiable" choice. -made my skin crawl. But he's right.

However, everyone that takes money from preaching about standards should have to update their sermons on sites that validate.


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The Elementary Standards: A Compendium of Web Standards, CSS, Linguistics and Search Engine Optimization methodology Copyright ©2005-2007 Sean Fraser. All work is published under a Creative Commons License. All Rights Reserved.

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